In What Year Was Jesus Crucified?

When was Christ tried and crucified?

When was Christ tried and crucified?

When was Jesus crucified? For this article, I’m not going to get into the day of the week or even the month. We’re just going to see if we can accurately peg the year of Jesus’ death (and resurrection). Answering that question is possible by looking at a few key clues from the New Testament, ancient historical records, and even geology! Let’s begin….

What About That Earthquake?

One of the coolest clues to dating Jesus’ crucifixion can be found in dirt! The Gospel of Matthew tells us that a significant earthquake took place upon the death of Jesus on the cross (Matthew 27:51). According to geologists, sediment depositions point to two major episodes of “seismic activity” near the Dead Sea close to or during the time of Christ. The first and largest quake dates to about B.C. (or B.C.E.) 31, which is interesting, but is of course much earlier than Jesus’ life. The second one fits perfectly. Geologists have determined that a significant earthquake occurred in the region sometime between A.D. (C.E.) 26 and 36, which (as we’re about to see) coincides perfectly with Jesus’ crucifixion. Many believe this earthquake, confirmed by geological studies, may indeed be the one Matthew describes in his Gospel. If so, we can date Jesus’ crucifixion between A.D. 26 and 36, which happens to be the same date range as our next clue…

The Reign of Pontius Pilate

The famed Roman historian Tacitus says that “Christus” (his way of saying Christ) was crucified “during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus.” Tacitus’ association of Jesus’ crucifixion with Pontius Pilate is consistent with all four canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John). Based on several ancient sources, historians date Pilate’s reign from A.D. 26 to 36. And this puts Jesus’ crucifixion somewhere within that 10-year range, but we can do better than that.

The Beginning of Jesus’ Ministry

The Gospel of Luke tells us that John the Baptist began preaching in the “fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, while Annas and Caiaphas were high priests…” (Luke 3:1-2). Since Jesus began his active ministry shortly after John began his, the beginning of Luke is a gold mine for historians! By looking at the known terms of office of the aforementioned individuals, we can safely conclude that Jesus began his ministry sometime between A.D. 26 and 29.

It does get a little confusing, though, when looking at Tiberius’ reign. In A.D. 11, Tiberius essentially became co-regent with the elderly Augustus and then, in A.D. 14, assumed full powers with Augustus’ passing. When Luke refers to the “fifteenth year” of Tiberius’ reign, does he mean 15 years from A.D. 11 or 15 years from A.D. 14? Depending on how you answer that question, Jesus begins his ministry in either A.D. 26/27 or A.D. 29 (and thus is crucified in likely A.D. 30 or 33).

When Was Jesus Born?

One of the main reasons some scholars prefer having Jesus begin his ministry in A.D. 26/27 is because Luke says Jesus was “about thirty years of age” when he began his ministry (Luke 3:23). In order for Jesus to be close to thirty years of age at the time he starts his ministry, the earlier date (26 or early 27 A.D.) works better than the later date (A.D. 29). The reason is because Jesus’ birth has been dated to between 6 and 4 B.C., based on the timetable of King Herod’s reign and the account in Matthew’s Gospel of Herod ordering the deaths of all babies in Bethlehem under two years of age. The more literal or specific you understand “about thirty years of age” to be in Luke 3, the closer you’ll lean toward A.D. 26/27 as the start of Jesus’ ministry.

Personally, I don’t think we need a literal reading of Luke 3:23. The author’s use of the word “about” is a pretty clear indication of his intentions. It would be like me looking at someone and saying he’s “about” 30 or 40 or 50. No scientific or biological or chronological precision is intended. I’d be providing a basic approximation. Nothing more. That appears to be Luke’s intent, and we should always interpret text based on author intent. Always. And, given Luke’s precision in Luke 3:1-2 and his generalization in Luke 3:23, we should put more weight on the former rather than the latter. Thus, I’m comfortable with dating the start of Jesus’ ministry to A.D. 29 (even though Jesus would likely be closer to mid-thirties in that year, rather than an even thirty).

How Many Passovers?

According to the Gospel of John, Jesus attended at least three annual Passover feasts (John 2:13; 6:4; 11:55) during his active ministry. (Some would say four). This requires a ministry spanning about 3 1/2 years. This renders the second most popular date (A.D. 30) almost impossible, raising A.D. 33 as the most likely contender, especially when you study Jewish Passover traditions and juxtapose those traditions against the possible dates during Pilate’s reign (A.D. 26-36).

When Was Jesus Crucified?

So….based on the above clues…in what year was Jesus crucified? There are certainly many scholars (much smarter than me) who date the crucifixion to A.D. 30. They make some good points, but I think the evidence heavily favors A.D. 33 as the year of Jesus’ death on the Roman cross (and most significantly, his resurrection).

This of course is not a salvation issue. And it’s not really a discipleship issue either. Good, decent, honorable Christians can hold to different dates of the crucifixion. The important thing is that He was crucified — and that he rose from the dead! On this Good Friday, let’s remember His sacrificial love as shown on the cross and the Good News of His resurrection.

 

 

Did Jesus Have a Wife? Michael Brown Says New Evidence is Not Evidence

You’ve probably seen headlines about an “authentic” document which indicates Jesus of Nazareth had a wife. Many are pointing to this document as proof of the premise behind Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code. Not so fast, says Michael Brown. Read his excellent article on this new “evidence” at the link below…

“Is There New Evidence That Jesus Had a Wife?”

Blessings!

The Sad Legacy of Fred Phelps: The World Says Goodbye to Anti-Gay Preacher and Head of America’s Most Hated Family

Fred Phelps, the infamous founding pastor of the Kansas-based Westboro Baptist Church, has died at the age of 84 of natural causes. The former civil rights attorney who became a bitter, hate-filled preacher was most notorious for his anti-gay activism and for encouraging his church members to picket funerals, including the funerals of fallen American service members who died overseas.

In addition to the emotional pain he’s inflicted on millions of gay and lesbian individuals as well as numerous military families, Phelps’ sad legacy includes the sullying of Christianity’s image in the world. Thanks to all the media coverage and Phelps’ constant references to the Bible and his being an ordained Baptist minister, many people associate hatred and venom with Christianity. This includes sadly one of Phelps’ own sons – now estranged and an atheist. While clear-headed, intelligent, and discerning individuals can see the difference between folks like Fred Phelps on the one hand and Christian leaders like Rick Warren or Tony Evans on the other, the fact is that many people aren’t thinking clearly when it comes to emotionally volatile issues like homosexuality nor are they even taking the time to be discerning in the increasingly shallow culture we live in – one known more for emotion and expression than reason or reflection.

Fred Phelps was ordained in a Southern Baptist church nearly half a century ago, before the world found out the true nature of Fred Phelps. He founded Westboro Baptist Church in 1955. At the time, Phelps reportedly displayed no animus or hatred toward any individual. In fact, Phelps was an attorney while also serving as a pastor. And, in the former capacity, Phelps was known in Topeka (ironically) for his pro-civil rights activism. How different his legacy would have been had he remained a champion for civil rights instead of becoming a mouthpiece for hatred.

Even though Phelps began his ministerial career as a Southern Baptist preacher and passed himself off as a “Baptist preacher” most of his life, Baptists worldwide have appropriately denounced him. The Southern Baptist Convention, the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship, and American Baptist Churches USA all repudiated Phelps. Some may wonder if these denunciations are convenient attempts on the part of Baptist denominations to cover their tracks. The reality is that Baptist churches are congregationally autonomous and largely independent from one another, even if they do cooperate together in a fellowship or denominational organization. Such cooperation is voluntary and grants absolutely zero oversight authority to the cooperative body. The chuches remain independent. And this means that anyone can start a church and call it “Baptist.” Phelps would’ve had a much harder time starting a Catholic, Methodist, or Presbyterian church, because those denominations are structured differently. The ease with which hateful crackpots like Phelps can coopt the name “Baptist” is why many Baptist churches are, in recent years, dropping the name “Baptist” from their signs (and, in some cases, from their official name altogether).

Unfortunately, most people don’t know the above. Therefore, they see that Fred Phelps is a Baptist preacher and conclude that Phelps’ type of hatred exists (at least to some degree) in Baptist churches worldwide. As a Baptist pastor myself, I obviously find this deeply distressing. What’s even worse is that many people don’t stop with associating Phelps with Baptists. They associate Phelps with all Christians. Phelps, after all, quotes the Bible, doesn’t he? And, in some cases, some of his references to the Bible are similar to those made by more “mainstream” Christian leaders. In fact, many observers note that Phelps opposes same-sex marriage and so do Rick Warren and Joel Osteen. Thus, they conclude (erroneously) that the only difference must be in tone and approach. Otherwise, all Christians are the same. They’re all, say these critics, “anti-gay.”

There was a time when people were more discerning than that. I don’t believe most people are so discerning today. It’s not that people are stupid. It’s that they’ve chosen to focus their attention on things that have deprived them of the ability to exercise their minds. In the 1800s, people would walk for miles to listen to political candidates talk for HOURS about the issues of the day. People would, in the 1800s and even early to mid 1900s, spend all day Sunday listening to sermons. That’s all changed. We’ve become “experts” in professional sports, American Idol, Dancing With the Stars, Days of Our Lives, The Walking Dead, Game of Thrones, House of Cards, 24, etc, etc. We express ourselves continually on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. We watch “reality” shows on the Internet – shows that consist of “slice of life” episodes of couples talking about their pets, wedding plans, new babies, trips, etc. We spend hours and hours playing World of Warcraft or Madden or whatever the latest video or PC game craze might be. And when it comes to politics or religion, we make snap judgments and quick decisions because we don’t have “time.” We want to get back to what we enjoy. In that kind of culture (and that’s exactly where we are), most people do NOT understand that being opposed to the redefinition of marriage is NOT the same as being “anti-gay.” Such distinctions aren’t even considered, let alone understood.

Of course, let’s be honest. It isn’t only Fred Phelps. There are many professing Christians that sadly blur the lines between Phelps and more mainstream Christians. When you’ve got a preacher in South Carolina recently calling for gays and lesbians to be interred behind a fence until they die out and Christians in other countries calling for the death penalty against gays and lesbians, it admittedly becomes difficult for people outside the Christian community to see meaningful distinctions between disagreement and hatred.

Yes, the Bible categorizes homosexuality as a sin. But the Bible actually spends very little time discussing homosexuality compared to other sins. What’s more, the Bible makes clear that we are to love our neighbor. It also makes clear that God loves the entire world – and we are to do likewise. There’s simply no place in the Bible for the offensive rhetoric or tactics employed by Fred Phelps. No place for someone cherry-picking a particular sin and going after it with obsessive, ruthless hatred. There’s no place for hatred in general in the Christian community.

While we should pray for Phelps’ family, we should also pray for healing for all those traumatized by Phelps’ tragic and deplorable legacy. And we must now, as Christians, redouble our efforts to convey the love of Christ to everyone in the world. And when it’s necessary to talk about sin, we must do so with patience, grace, mercy, and love. Something Fred Phelps was unwilling to do.

**For more on this topic, check outWestboro Baptist Church is a Hate GroupandWhat Does a Biblical Marriage Really Look Like?

What Does Hebrews 13:17 Mean?

When faced with difficult questions, we should look to the Bible for answers.

When faced with difficult questions, we should look to the Bible for answers.

What does the Bible mean when it says to “obey those who rule over you” (Hebrews 13:17, NKJV)? There’s been a lot of debate, misunderstanding, and misuse of this passage. Many Christians have been hurt by pastors who have used this as a bludgeon and many church-going Christians have cavalierly ignored it to the detriment of the congregations in which they worship. What does Hebrews 13:17 really mean?

What is Hebrews 13 About?

Let’s of course understand that the early church added the chapters and verses. The books of the Bible were originally penned without these reference points. Thus, to understand Hebrews 13, it’s appropriate to look at the entire book of Hebrews. And the focus of the epistle to the Hebrews is a call to “perfection” or completion. God’s people are called to live out their lives in sacrificial devotion to the Lord Jesus Christ as they continually grow and develop as disciples.

In this context, the writer of Hebrews shows how the revelation of God to mankind as unfolded in ways that emphasize this growth toward perfection. As Dr. Elmer Towns put it, the key word or theme in Hebrews is “better.” Hebrews show us that “Christ is better than the angels, better than Moses, better than the Aaronic priesthood, and better than the Old Testament Law.” The entire book centers on the “superiority of Christ to Old Testament rituals,” and thus calls on us to perfect our own lives by centering them on Christ.

In the course of the book of Hebrews, there’s much the writer says about maturity, sin, study, sacrifice, prayer, and faith. By the time we get to the thirteenth chapter of Hebrews, the writer is bringing his overall exhortation to conclusion by giving us practical ways in which we can insure that we are, in fact, bettering ourselves as disciples of Christ.

What Does Hebrews Say About Pastors?

The book of Hebrews reminds us that we’ve moved beyond the Old Testament system of laws and priests, but still emphasizes the need for assembly (Hebrews 10:25) and spiritual authority (Hebrews 13:7, 17). In so doing, the writer of Hebrews gives exhortations that are wholly consistent with other New Testament teachings on churches and pastors. We do not need the church as an institution to impart grace to us. God has given us grace through Christ. We do not need priests, pastors, or spiritual leaders as any kind of go-between. Christ is our go-between. We do not need churches, pastors, priests, or anything of the sort in any kind of legalistic manner. Instead, pastors and churches are there for our benefit as we move on toward “perfection.”

In Hebrews 13, the writer hones in on how we can best benefit from churches in general and pastors in particular. In addition to of course attending (see Hebrews 10:25), we should ”[r]emember those who rule over you, who have spoken the word of God to you, whose faith follow, considering the outcome of their conduct” (Hebrews 13:7) and “obey” or (depending on the translation) “submit to” to their spiritual leadership (Hebrews 13:17).

What Does it Mean to Submit to a Pastor?

As with any passage, context is key to understanding it. This is not a command for unconditional submission or obedience, nor is it prohibiting members from disagreeing with the pastor or offering constructive criticism. It’s simply a recognition of the responsibility and authority God has placed on pastors. Church-going Christians should “submit” in the following manner:

  • “Remember” their pastor – The should take note of the importance of the pastor’s call and recognize the importance of the work. They should value that call, respect it, and pray for the pastor accordingly.
  • Follow their example – Since pastors are called to a high standard of living (I Timothy 3), Christians are urged to look to their example and draw inspiration from it.
  • “Obey” or “submit” to their spiritual authority – Church members are expected to follow the leadership of their pastor, to let their pastor lead.

This is all in the context of church leadership and spiritual example. Pastors do not have a right to exert authority into an individual Christian’s home, personal finances, employment, or community. In other words, the pastor doesn’t have the right to give you orders when it comes to how you raise your children, spend your money, handle your career, or live in your community. If a pastor tries to do this, that pastor is stepping way outside the biblical guidelines of spiritual leadership and stepping into the realm of abuse. Such abuse is how many cults operate.

The pastor does have the right to exhort you or call attention to areas in your life that he perceives are out of sync with what God says. That’s definitely his role, so long as he backs it up with Scripture and is doing so with the right motive (namely concern for you and out of sincere love for and obedience to God). As a pastor, I can tell someone that it’s wrong for them to thus-and-so (and show them from the Bible why it’s wrong), but I don’t have the right to force them to heed my words. That’s between them and God.

A pastor also has the responsibility to teach and lead the congregation to which God has called him. As the late Adrian Rogers once said, the pastor’s job is to “feed and lead.” While different churches may assign varying levels of authority to the pastor, the pastor does have the overall role of leadership in the church. That’s clearly taught in Scripture and is generally the case with evangelical churches across the board. This means the pastor will sometimes make people unhappy. That’s the nature of leadership. Sometimes, pastors preach on topics or in ways that make people uncomfortable. Sometimes, pastors make changes that don’t always sit well with the churches they lead. Sometimes, pastors have to say “no” to church member requests. Sometimes, a pastor will ask people to step out of their Comfort Zones. The bottom line is that the pastor, like any leader, cannot make everyone happy and will sometimes make at least a few people unhappy.

Most of you reading this will nod and agree with the above paragraph, but remember….Sometimes, the person made unhappy will be YOU. How’s your loyalty and spirit of submission then?

Even though pastors are imperfect and even though you will not always agree with your pastor, please remember that a pastor needs the love, prayers, support, respect and cooperation of those within the congregation in order to effectively fulfill his God-given responsibility of watch care and leadership.

How to Criticize a Pastor

What if the pastor is wrong? What if the pastor has done something to hurt you? What if the pastor is leading the church in a way that you find inconsistent with God’s Word or flawed in some other way? How do you criticize the pastor?

If a pastor is corrupt or has, in some way, violated the standards of a biblical elder, look to the Scriptures and your church’s Constitution & Bylaws in how you should lovingly investigate the issues or situation – and, as appropriate, lovingly remove the pastor. This sometimes needs to happen. And when it does, such a situation needs to dealt with openly, wisely, humbly, clearly, and prayerfully.

In most cases, conflicts between pastors and parishioners (if I can use that term) do not rise to the level of corruption or even doctrinal disagreement. In most cases, conflict revolves around issues of personality, style, and a difference in vision or priorities. In this respect, it’s important that you carefully examine the foundation of the conflict and ask yourself whether it’s worth the attention, anxiety, or focus that you’re perhaps giving it. Are you holding the pastor to proper, reasonable expectations? If you feel the pastor is wrong, do you base that assessment on your feelings or on some objective standard (such as the Bible)? If you feel the conflict is important, how do you handle a conflict with the pastor in such cases? As with any question, the best place to look for the answer is in God’s Word. Here are some great Bible passages that deal with conflict:

  • “Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in Your sight, O Lord, my strength and my Redeemer.” -Psalm 19:14
  • “And just as you want men to do to you, you also do to them likewise.” -Luke 6:31
  • “Moreover if your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he hears you, you have gained your brother. But if he will not hear, take with you one or two more, that ‘by the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.’ And if he refuses to hear them, tell it to the church. But if he refuses even to hear the church, let him be to you like a heathen and a tax collector.” -Matthew 18:15-17
  • “Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering; bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another; even as Christ forgave you, so you also must do. But above all these things put on love, which is the bond of perfection.” -Colossians 3:12-14
  • ” ‘Be angry, and do not sin’: do not let the sun go down on your wrath, nor give place to the devil.” -Ephesians 4:26-27
  • “Let no corrupt word proceed out of your mouth, but what is good for necessary edification, that it may impart grace to the hearers.” -Ephesians 4:29

When it comes to criticizing pastors, are you following the above verses? There are many other such passages. Do a study on conflict and reconciliation in the Bible. Make sure that you are offering criticism and handling conflict in a manner that glorifies God.

Pray for your Pastors

Pastors aren’t perfect. They are people. As people, they are sinners like you, me, and anyone else. They also have weaknesses, emotions, and difficulties like anyone else. Make sure your expectations are fair and reasonable. And make sure that your attitude toward your pastor always reflects the love and grace God has shown you – and is consistent with how you would want people to approach you (see Golden Rule). Most of all, remember your pastor in prayer.

A lot of our problems would go away and a lot of our conflicts would disappear if we spent less time complaining and criticizing – and more time loving and praying.

May God bless you, your church, and your pastor.

**For more on this topic, check out “Pastoral Leadership vs Pastoral Care: What Does the Bible Say About Pastoral Ministry and the Role of a Pastor?”